Non-renewable Energy

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Non-renewable Energy the energy sources which are not renewable. Their reserves diminish and the resources are exhausted in course of time as they are used. And so the sources are considered limited and not usable for an unlimited period of time. Fossil fuels fall in this category.

Bangladesh is quite rich in natural gas. Although the actual reserve of this most important fossil fuel of Bangladesh has not yet been ascertained, a recent study made with the help of experts of the US Geological Survey shows that there is as much as 33 TCF (trillion cubic feet) of proven probable natural gas reserves in the country. Some coalmines have also been discovered in Bangladesh. At present the country has 2,041 million tons of coal reserve. However, petroleum is mostly imported from the Middle East.

Various types of petroleum products are in use in different sectors. Diesel, kerosene, petrol and octane are most commonly used. Table 1 describes the sector wise consumption of petroleum products.

Table Reserve of coal in Bangladesh.

Jamalganj (Joypurhat) 1962 640-1158 1053 Mining not feasible economically
Barapukuria (Dinajpur) 1985 118-506 303 Underground mine started production
Khalashpir (Rangpur) 1989 257-451 147 Undeveloped
Dighipara (Dinajpur) 1995 250 200 Undeveloped
Phulbari (Dinajpur) 1997 152-246 380

Open pit mine feasibility study undertaken in 2004

Source Petrobangla; Geological Survey of Bangladesh

liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) contains mostly propane and butane and is marketed by LP Gas Ltd. It is very popular as cooking fuel and is also used in motor vehicles. The LPG Bottling Plant in Chittagong was built in 1978-79. In this plant about 16,000 tons of LPG is received annually through a pipeline from Eastern Refinery and then bottled. LPG Sweetening unit was installed to make LPG totally free from H2S and to reduce other forms of sulphur below a maximum allowable limit. LPG spheres were installed to provide a much needed LPG storage facility. In 1997-98 LP Gas Ltd bottled a total of 1.061 million cylinders (each cylinder containing 12.5 kg LP gas). The LPG Storage, Bottling and Distribution Project at Kailash Tila in Sylhet was completed in 1998. The additional 5,000 tons of LPG per year received from indigenous sources are bottled and put for marketing through oil marketing companies from this plant. Presently, a total of 21,000 tons of LPG is bottled annually from these two plants of LP Gas Ltd. The present annual demand of LPG is about 5-6 lakhs tonnes. However, the production capacity of LPG in Bangladesh supply only about 75,000 tonnes. To meet the increasing demand of LPG the government has taken up a policy for importing it. Importing and bottling of approximately 60,000 tons of LPG initially, with a provision for its extension to 2 million ton gradually by the side of the existing LPG plant in Chittagong, is under active consideration of the government. This would help the people of the country considerably, especially those residing in the northwestern region of Bangladesh, to meet the increasing demand for cooking fuel and to reduce use of wood and cutting of forests. Already, Basundhara, a local company, has started importing LPG from abroad, and bottling at Mongla of Bagerhat district to distribute it in the northwestern zone.

Coal played a key role as a primary source of organic chemical feed stocks in the world till 1950s, and maintained its large share as a primary energy source throughout the 20th century. Although its percentage contribution decreased from 55 in 1900 to 22 in 1997, coal plays a vital role as a energy resource. The present coal reserve of Bangladesh is 2,041 million tons.

In addition to the fields listed above, coal has also been discovered at Dighipara of Dinajpur district. The reserve is yet to be calculated. A major part of this coal has been earmarked for power generation.'

Coal is being extracted and exploited commercially from Barapukuria coalfield since September 2005. In the fiscal year 2008-09 total amount of coal extracted was about 0.86 million metric tons. Major share of this coal is fed to the 250 MW powerplant situated at the vicinity of the underground mine. There is also a proposal for openpit mine at Phulbari. The total reserve of coal in the five coalfields of Bangladesh is about 2700 million tones. As the prime fuel of the country is limited and the nation is going to face a severe energy insecurity it is a high time to finalize coal policy and proceed further for the development of the coal resource. [Rafiqul Islam]