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Oil Plant


Sunflower field
 

Oil Plant any of several plants, the seeds of which yield oil. The edible oil-producing plants constitute the second major agricultural crop in Bangladesh, next to the food grain. Vegetable or plant oils are usually classified into two major groups depending on their behaviour of heating: volatile or essential oils, and non-volatile or fatty oils. Volatile oils are produced from different aromatic plant species, belonging to different plant families mainly Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, Umbelliferae, Labiatae, Compositae, etc.

Mustard field

Most of the volatile oils are used for manufacturing perfume and other scented items. Non-volatile or fatty oils are consumed and used by human beings in different ways. Fatty oils are stored up, often in large amount, in seeds (40-60%) and to a less extent in fruits, tubers, stems, leaves, and in other organs.

Fatty oils are produced from many plant species belonging to different families mainly Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Asteraceae (Compositae), Fabaceae (Leguminosea), Euphorbiaceae, Pedaliaceae, Arecaceae (Palmae), etc. A list of major and minor oil producing plants is given in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1 Large oil producing plants.

English name Bangla name Botanical name Family Growing season/ plant type Traditional and commercial uses Area of use
Mustard Sarisa Brassica species (Several species and varieties) Brassicaceae Annual, Rabi- crop, Herb Main edible oil for cooking, a medium for preserving pickles, used for head and body massage, this oil mixed with camphor is effective in removing muscular rheumatism; oil cake used as cattle feed and manure. All over Bangladesh
Sesame Til Sesamum indicum Pedaliaceae Annual, Rabi & Kharif crop, Herb Edible used as substitute of olive oil, hair oil, lubricant, and for soap; oil cake used as cattle feed and manure. All over Bangladesh mainly in Pabna, Khulna, Faridpur, Rajshahi, Dhaka
Linseed Tisi Linum usitatissimum Linaceae Annual, Rabi crop, Herb Extensively used for preparing paints, varnishes, painting ink etc, also used as edible oil; oil cake is used as cattle feed. Kushtia, Jessore, Pabna, Dhaka, Mymensingh, Tangail
Groundnut/ Peanut Cheena- badam Arachis hypogea Fabaceae Annual, Rabi & Kharif crop, Herb Used as edible oil, and for making margarine, peanut butter, ghee etc, traditionally eaten as fried 'badam', oil cake is also used as cattle feed and manure. All over Bangladesh
Sun-flower Suryamukhi Helianthus annuus Asteraceae Annual, Ornamental Herb Edible oil for cooking, used in producing soap, margarine, paints and varnishes; oil cake is used as cattle feed. All over Bangladesh mainly in Noakhali and Rajshahi
Soybean Soyabean Glycine max Fabaceae Annual, Herb Extensively used in Bangladesh as edible oil for cooking, mature oil seeds are used for preparing many food items, like, Soyadal, Soyakhicuri, Soyasalad, Soyabread, Soyabiscuit, Soyamargrarine etc, also used for preparing soap, paints, printing inks, cosmetics etc. All over Bangladesh
Coconut Narikel/Dab Cocos nucifera Arecaceae Perennial, Palmtree Refined oil is edible and used for cooking, for making various food, like, candy bars, margarine and confectionaries; a popular hair oil, also used as base oil for producing cosmetics. All over Bangladesh, mostly in the coastal areas

Table 2 Minor oil producing plants.

English name Bangla name Botanical name Family Growing season/ plant type Traditional and commercial uses Area of use
Niger-seed Garjantil/1 Guizotia abyssinica Asteraceae (Compositae) Annual, Rabi-crop, Her Edible oil, used in painting and soap making, oil cake is also used as cattle feed and manure. In most areas of Bangladesh, mainly in Jamalpur, Magura, Comilla and Tangail
Castor/ Castor bean Bherenda/ Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae Perenial, Large shrub or small tree Used mainly as lubricant and purgative, also for preparing hair oil, hair fixed, hair lotion, perfume, soap, varnishes, phenyl. Also for preserving leather and as an illuminant. It is not edible and should not be used as cattle feed. All over Bangladesh
Safflower Kusumphul Carthamum tinctorius Asteraceae (Compositae) Annual, Herb Used as edible oil for cooking, for preparing soap, paints, varnishes and also used as an illuminant. In different parts of Bangladesh
Lemon grass Lemonghas, Gandhatrina Cymbopogon citratus Poaceae (Gram) Perennial grass Perfuming soaps, cosmetics etc. -

The national estimates of acreages and production of major oil seeds during 1997-98 are shown in Table 3.

Table 3 The major oil producing crops, area of cultivation and annual production.

Name of crop Area (ha) Production (tons) Principal growing areas
Mustard and rape 3,43,630 2,53,640 Tangail, Jessore, Comilla, Sylhet, Faridpur, Sirajganj, Pabna, Rajshahi
Sesame 79,654 49,030 Faridpur, Rangamati, Barisal, Comilla, Pabna, Mymensingh, Bandarban, Sirajganj
Groundnut 34,715 39,540 Noakhali, Dhaka, Faridpur, Mymensingh, Rangpur, Kishoreganj
Linseed 69,820 50,425 Barisal, Jessore, Faridpur, Kushtia, Pabna.
Coconut 32,092 89,320 Noakhali, Barisal, Chittagong, Comilla, Dhaka, Faridpur, Khulna, Patuakhali, Jessore

Although widely cultivated in different districts of the country, the annual production of oil seeds is far below the domestic need. [Md. Mahfuzur Rahman]

Pests Rapeseed-mustard, Brassica species, sesame, Sesamum indicum, and groundnut, Arachis hypogea are the major oilseed crops grown in Bangladesh. Among the minor oilseed crops, sunflower, Helianthus annuus, safflower Carthamus tinctorius, lineseed Linum usitatissimum, and soybean, Glycine max are important. Several dozens of insect pests reportedly attack these oilseed crops (Table 4), but only a few of them are of economic importance.

Table 4 The common pests affecting oilseed crops.

Common name Scientific name Family and Order Nature of injury Status
Mustard
Mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi Aphididae: Homoptera Adults and nymphs suck sap from leaves and pods Major
Sawfly Athelia proxima lugens Tenthredinidae: Hymenoptera Larvae feed on leaves Occasional
Butterfly Delias eucharis Pieridae: Lepidoptera Larvae feed on leaves Minor
Leaf caterpillar Crocidolomia binotalis Pyralidae: Lepidoptera Larvae feed on leaves, bore the pod and make webs Occasional
Sesame
Til pod bug Eysarcoris ventralis Pentatomidae: Hemiptera Adults and nymphs suck sap from leaves and pods Major
Til hawk moth Acherontia styx Sphingidae: Lepidopter Larvae feed on leaves Major
Leaf and pod caterpillar Antigastra catalaunalis Pyralidae: Lepidoptera Larvae feed on leaves Major
Jute hairy caterpillar Spilosoma obliqua Arctiidae: Lepidoptera Larvae feed on leaves Major
Mirid bug Cyrtopeltis (=Nesidiocoris) species Miridae: Hemiptera dults and nymphs suck sap from leaves and make the leaves perforated Major
Groundnut
Leaf beetle Oxycetonia versicolor Cetoniidae: Coleoptera Adults feed on leaves Minor
Leaf roller Anarsia ephippias Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera Larvae roll leaves Minor
Jassid Amrasca devastans Cicadellidae: Homoptera Adults and nymphs suck sap from leaves Minor
Jute hairy caterpillar Spilosoma obliqua Arctiidae: Lepidoptera Larvae feed on leaves Potential
Cut worm Agrotis ipsilon Noctuidae: Lepidoptera Larvae cut plants at ground level Potential
Aphids Aphis craccivora Aphididae: Homoptera Adults and nymphs suck sap from leaves and shoots Minor
Termites Odontotermes species Bores plant under soil Potential
Microtermes species Potential
Odontotermes obesus Termitidae: Isoptera Potential
Groundnut thrips Haplothrips indicus Phlaeothripidae: Thysanoptera Adults and immature suck sap from leaves and flowers Minor
Soybean
Soybean bug Nezara viridula Pentatomidae: Hemiptera Adults and nymphs suck sap Minor
Jute hairy caterpillar Spilosoma obliqua Arctiidae: Lepidoptera Larvae feed on leaves Major
Lablab bug Coptosoma cribraria Pentatomidae: Hemiptera Adult and young suck sap from plants Minor
Mealy bug Pseudococcus filamentosus Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera Adult and young suck sap from leaves and shoots Minor
Soybean caterpillar Anarsia ephippias Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera Larvae feed on leaves Major
Leaf roller Hedylepta (=Lamprosema) indicata Pyralidae: Lepidoptera Caterpillars roll leaves Minor
Leaf miner Aproaerema (=Stomopteryx) species Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera Larvae mine in leaves Major
Soybean stemfly Ophiomyia phaseoli Agromyzidae: Diptera Larvae bore young seedlings Major
Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Aleyrodidae: Homoptera Adults and nymphs suck sap from leaves Minor
Flea beetle Monolepta signata Chrysomelidae : Coleoptera Adults and larvae feed on leaves Minor
Sunflower
Jute hairy caterpillar Spilosoma obliqua Arctiidae: Lepidoptera Larvae feed on leaves Minor
Flea beetle Monolepta signata Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera Adults and larvae feed on leaves Minor
Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Aleyrodidae: Homoptera Adults and nymphs suck sap from leaves Minor
Safflower
Flea beetle Monolepta signata Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera Adults feed on leaves Minor
Stem borer Melanogromyza species Agromyzidae: Lepidoptera Larvae bore into stems Major
Aphid Macrosiphum species Aphididae: Homoptera Adults and nymphs suck sap from leaves and pods Minor
Niger
Flea beetle Monolepta signata Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera Adults and young feed on leaves Minor
Aphid Macrosiphum species Aphididae: Homoptera Adults and nymphs suck sap from leaves and stems Minor
Linseed
Linseed gall midge Dasineura lini Cecidomyiidae: Diptera Larvae bore into pods Minor
Prodenia caterpillar Spodoptera litur Noctuidae: Lepidoptera Larvae feed on leaves Minor
Cut worm Agrotis ipsilon Noctuidae: Lepidoptera Larvae cut plants at the base Minor

Of all the pests infesting the oil seed crops mustard aphid, L. erysimi and Til hawk moth, A. styx under favourable conditions cause heavy damage to the growing crops. [M Ibrahim Ali]

Diseases Some common diseases of oilseed crops are mentioned below:

Mustard White rust caused by the fungus Albugo candida is a common disease that affects the aerial part of the plant. Lesions are visible on the leaves and stem as white or creamy-yellow small spots. Usually, leaf spots appear on the lower surface; in severe infection they are found on both surfaces.

Alternaria leaf spot or blight caused by Alternaria brassicae and A. bracissicola is one of the most widespread and serious diseases of mustard prevalent in different areas of Bangladesh. The round leaf spots produced initially are small. Soon the spots enlarge and may attain a size of about one cm in diameter. Usually lower leaves are affected.

Groundnut Tikka disease, caused by two fungal pathogens, Cercospora personata and C. arachidicola, is a major groundnut disease in Bangladesh. Both the pathogens producing spots may occur on the same leaf but may show some difference in symptoms. The leaf spots produced by C. personata are circular, about 3-8 mm in diameter, and appear at late growth stages. The lesions are usually dark brown to black and appear on both the surfaces of the leaf. On the other hand, leaf spots produced by C. arachidicola usually appear at the early growth stage of the plant and are characterized by a brown-red, irregularly circular spot with a yellow halo. Spots produced by either pathogen may be found on leaflets, petioles and stems. High relative humidity, temperature, and close planting favour the development of the disease.

Southern blight of groundnut caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is a common disease throughout the world. The fungus is responsible for light brown decay at the basal region of the plants with characteristic presence of whitish and cottony growth of the fungal mycelium intermingled with mustard seed like sclerotia.

Minor diseases of groundnuts include the mosaic (caused by virus), seed rot (caused by Aspergillus species, Rhizopus species, Penicillium species, etc), stem rot (caused by Rhizoctonia solani), rust (caused by Puccinia arachidis), and root-knot caused by the nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria.

Soybean Anthracnose, a major disease of soybean is caused by Colletotrichum dematium var. truncata. Symptoms are usually evident during the pod setting to maturation stages of growth. Any aerial parts of the plant, including pods and pedicles, are susceptible to the pathogen. Symptoms include grayish to reddish brown blotches. The fungus is seed borne.

Pod and stem blight of soybean is caused by Phomopsis sojai. Any aerial part and roots are susceptible to the disease. Symptoms on the stems and pods appear as pimple-like spore bearing pycnidia on the surface.

Brown spot of soybean caused by Septoria glycines usually causes brown, angular, or to some extent circular leaf spots with yellow halo surrounding each. The spots may coalesce to cover larger areas resulting in premature fall of the leaves. Stem, pods and seeds may also be affected.

Flax (Linseed) Rust is a very common disease of linseed. The pathogen, Melamspora lini causes bright orange coloured uredosori on any aerial part of the plant. With the advancement of the disease, the colour of the sori turns black. The leaves may die prematurely. Fusarium oxysporum is responsible for root rot, damping off, or wilt at any stage of plant growth. Brown streaks of mycelium may develop, clogging the vascular tissue of the stem. [Abul Khair]

See also flax; groundnut; mustard; sesame; soybean.