Police Administration General administration and police administration co-exist in parallel. An evidence of the existence of structured police system is available in ancient Maurya empire from Brahmin pandit (scholar) Kautilya's historical edition Arthasastra. But since then no such change occurred in the structure of police system worth mentioning. In 12th century, when there was the rule of Muslim sultanate in Bengal, also in the subcontinent, a slight change in police system was noticed. But it was the Mughal reign when the police system expanded and activated in a new phase. Though in Mughal reign there was no professional police force in resemblance to British rule, an orderly police administration was present to maintain law and order throughout the country. From the British rule a real and total administrative outline of police system started to build up. A revolutionary plan in that testing period of police administration was the Police Reform of 1782. Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 was a demonstration of the fact that police system was ineffective and useless, and police administration was reformed in 1861 based on the Police Report of 1860.
The main objective of the reform was to establish a uniform and effective police administration in the whole country. Soon after, Irish Constable System of police administration was introduced in some provinces of India including Bengal. The police force was orderly arranged under local government as one battalion, and police administration extended to all districts. A noticeable event of that time was the creation of the position of Inspector General of Police as the main officer to supervise the police activities of a province. At the district level, police administration was directed by police super under supervision of Inspector General of Police. At present, the British Irish Constable System of police administration is in practice in the subcontinent including Bangladesh.
The highest officer of police administration in Bangladesh is Inspector General of Police (IGP) who controls all departments of police under indirect supervision of the Home Minister. Some senior police officers help him in his work at police headquarters. A Deputy Inspector General of Police (DIGP) is appointed for each range of civil administrative unit. He controls district level police administration under his range. There are six civil ranges and one railway range in Bangladesh. In each range there is a Deputy Inspector General of Police. Besides, police commissioners of divisional cities, administrative head of Central Intelligence Department (CID), head of Special Branch (SB) and Sarda Academy are of the rank of Additional Inspector General of Police.
At the district level, police super is the chief of police administration. An additional police super, few assistant police supers and official staff help him in his administrative work. An assistant police super controls the administration of a circle. In every police station under a circle, the administration is controlled by an inspector or by an officer in-charge (OC). In district headquarters some armed police are kept reserved under the district police super. This force is engaged on emergency basis when law and order falls rapidly. Activities of CID and SB police are extended at field levels parallel to district police in addition to their activities at central headquarters. Two police supers in two railway districts under Bangladesh railway range conduct the administrative activities of railway police. An additional police super and an adequate number of assistant police supers help police super in his job. A group of armed police named Railway Special Armed Force is appointed to work under him.
In 1869, some military officers were appointed in police department for training of police officers and improving discipline in their work. This caused creation of a public hatred towards the police. Under this situation Lord Curzon formed a police commission in 1902. Among the many recommendations proposed by this commission, there were proposals for the establishment of a training college for newly appointed police officers and a training school for police employees. In the same year a training college was established for police officers in Mount Abu of India. Indian and British police officers (DSP category) were trained in this college. In 1903, two police training schools were established in Bengal, one in Rampur Baolia of Rajshahi and the other in Mill Barak of Dhaka. Bangali sub-inspector cadets and constables were trained in these two schools up to 1912. After the establishment of Sarda Police Training College ASP, DSP, Sub-inspector cadets and constables were trained there. Sarda Police Training Academy is the only top ranking police training institute in the country. A curriculum was prepared for the apprentice officers at the academy. An additional IGP is its principal. The first principal of this academy was Major H. Chimon (1912-1919).
There are four regional training schools for the training of constables. These are: Mahera police training school at Tangail for Dhaka division, police training school at Rangpur town for Rajshahi division, Boyra police training school for Khulna division and Noakhali Maizdi police training school for Chittagong division.'
An Additional Deputy Inspector General of Police works as the principal of a regional training school. There is a training school for detective polices at Rajarbag in Dhaka. In this school police officers of different ranks take special training on investigation of crime under the supervision of an additional DIG. A training school for SB police operates in its own building at Uttara of Dhaka. An additional DIG is in charge of the school. Lower rank officers and staff of SB police are trained there. For the training of traffic police there is a fully developed training school at Mill Barrack of Dhaka.
There is a telecommunication training centre at Rajarbag of Dhaka. Constables and police officers of upper ranks are given training on telecommunication there. A police super oversees the training centre. A training institute named Jungle Warfare and Tactical Training School is established at the hilly area of Barbunia in Rangamati district. This institute was initially situated at an inaccessible area of Dulahajra in Chakoria thana of Cox's Bazar district. Inspectors and his subordinates takes special training there under the supervision of a police super who works as its principal.
Twelve women police were appointed in special branch in 1974 for the first time to investigate and to detect female professional fraud, local and international smuggling and anti-social activities by prostitutes in hotels and houses of wealthy people. In 1978, women police were appointed in Dhaka City. Nowadays women police of various ranks are appointed in CID, immigration, district headquarters and police headquarters. Women polices also work in police departments of other cities of Bangladesh.
Organisationally, Bangladesh police has 10 branches and each branch has its own method of action. These branches are under the control of the Inspector General of Police, but they work almost independently. The branches are: District police, CID police, Special Branch, Railway police, Traffic police, River police, City police, Cavalier police, Armed police battalion and Range reserve force. [Ahmed Amin Chowdhury]