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Sarkar, Kavial Bijay Krishna


Sarkar, Kavial Bijay Krishna (1903-1985) was a poet, composer and tuner. Bijay Krishna Adhikari, a prominent figure in composing famous Kavigan (Poetic song) and Bichchhedigan (Dissension song), was born in the village of Dumudi under Sadar (Proper) Police Station in the district of Narail in 1903. Their ancestors include: Master of Vaisvava' Natu Bairagi and Uddhab Bairagi. The name of his father and mother was Naba Kumar Bairagi and Himalaya Kumari Bairagi respectively.

After completing his study upto class ten in a local school, he served as a teacher in the Tabra Primary School for a short time. He then employed as a Nayeb (A rent collector) in the local Kachari. While servicing, he used to practice various folk music and acted in a Jatra party. In 1925 Bijay Sarkar took lessons on Kavigan for two years from a famous Kavial (poetic singer) of Gopalganj named Kavial Manohar Sarkar and for one year from Kavial Rajendra Sarkar respectively. He then started to practice Kavigan being constituted to an individual Kavi Group in 1929 and established himself as a Kavial within short time.

After the war of Palashi in 1757, the Kavigan became most popular, it is mentionable that since 1757 to 1859, the number of Kavial had increased tremendously. The comment of Sajani Kanta Das in regards to Kavigan include: 'Kavigan was composed with the amalgamation of Tarja, Panchali, Khair, Akhrai, Half, Danda-Kavigan, Bosa-Kavigan, Dhapkirtan, tappa, Krishvajatra etc, those were in a vague at various level of time in Bangladesh.'Here 'Kavi' or 'Kavial' (poet) meant by a person who is literally illiterate but well acquainted about the Beda-Puran, politics and history. The program of Kavigan is strived for pronouncing an argument by writing melodious poetry instantly by tunes and melodies from the mind of two rival poets. Firstly, one poet-team start a song based on one theme and another poet-team will answer according that song. Victory and defeat depends on tactical attack to other party by ready-wittedness, blend of alliteration in addition to the extension of humorous Ragas as well as intertwining argument with logic. In accordance with the variation of climax of argument, the recession and growl of sound of drum, Kashi, Mandira and Karotal is dependent on. At that time, Kavigan was the utterance of the rural illiterate people which was corrupted by obscenity, could never be listened being gathered by male and female in a program. In order to entertain the mass people, Kavigan sounded, as an instant narration of the poets it is called 'momentary song'. They (kavials) did not leave any written poetry as they had to create 'introduction and answer' in the same stage orally. The poets got puzzled using words while composing song by standing up in the program, as if' they forget the motive of' a sentence. Kavial Bijay Sarkar initiated to revise kavigan being a devotee of Harichoran Acharya and Rajesh Sarkar. Where the ancient poets were aspire to libidinousness, suspicious to Radha; wrote apprehensive songs while compose idealistic love song, it was, Bijay Sarkar, the leader of the poet of modern times, who composed poetries of the incorporeal love which can be plucked from his famous Sakhi Sangbad,

'Left asleep of Krishna in bride-chamber in tire

The night of love is over

Sham Juvenile left obscure.'

Though Bijay Sharkar Known as a poet, he did not renounce the world and was not an Akhrabasi. He was recognized as Guru of three thousand male and female both in the West Bengal and Bangladesh. Though at the end of his life he used to spend his time being mentored and taught his fellows, he abstained from taken any reward from them.

After his death, a report was published by one Basudev Golkar in Sri Sri Pagol Bijayamrito where he mentioned his contribution of donation of eyes to a Muslim of Bangladesh and left blind for rest of his life.

At the very beginning of twentieth century, Bijay Sharkar played an unprecedented role in advancing and popularizing the Kavigan in Bangladesh. At that time Dhua song composed by the melody of Vatiali made him popular. In his whole life, he basically entertained by two form of song- Kavigan and Ramayan gan. Sometimes, he used to arrange Jari Pala with' Jarial (Jari singer). Bijay Sarkar presented the Kavigan with its neutral formal, touched the heart of the audience. Besides, fantastically kavigan composed by neutral swarabritta rhythm initiated renaissance in the world of music. In this regard, a part of his music based on Bhabani:

' O Earth! Religion of your universe is a behest of action

A glare in each of the pot

No delay in one's action, demon in the vein

Male and female are colorful in the action.'

Later he composed a different kind of folk music liquidizing the inner meaning of Baul song with Bhatiali melody which has created a special school in the area of vast dynamic collection of our folk music. These songs may be taken as the Bichchhed Bhatiali songs which touched the heart of every class of people irrespective of educated and illiterate people. He composed about a quarter to four hundred songs which include: Radha Bichchhed, Krishna Bichchhed, Barasia, Sari, Dhua, Austakgan, Padakirtan, Islamic Song, Dakgan, Sakhi-Sangbad, Gosthagan, Kavigan etc. Sarkar came to close contact with the eminent personalities like kazi nazrul islam, jasimuddin, abbasuddin ahmed etc.

Furthermore, Bijay Sarkar had practiced music for about 55 years. Moreover, he was awarded many award and reward for the entertainment of music in Bangladesh Betar, Bangladesh Television, Bangla Academy and Shilpokala Academy. He passed away on 4 December in 1985. [Md. Enamul Haq]