Graphic Design a modern version of ancient fine arts related to design, sign and presentation is used in all art media like publications including newspapers, periodical and books, bill boards, neon signs, sign boards, banner and festoons. Being a branch of Fine Arts, Graphic Design is being taught in the educational institutes. On the other hand it is a creative professional art related to publication, publicity, print and digital media. Earlier after the invention of printing press it was known as commercial art as the art form was used frequently to fulfill commercial requirements. Graphic designs are now widely used by the government, international organisations, educational institutions, NGOs and other establishments to develop their own information-kit, publicity material and publications for establishing communication with their respective public. This particular branch of fine Arts is called Graphic Design as logo, colour theme and typography for each particular organisation are developed on specific idea and concept. Now Graphic design is termed visual communication.
The word 'Graphic' relates to drawing, design and blueprint and 'design' is visual reflection of an artistic imagination of any object, subject or idea. A visual language or presentation becomes very much effective for communicating information, message and directive on any subject or in launching any new Idea to the target audience or subscribers if it is presented before them in an attractive and beautiful manner. Typography and image are two important elements of visual language as they enrich it to draw attention of viewers. When alphabets are specially designed and presented aesthetically with the help of technology, it is called typography. Designs developed with types and calligraphy is also known as typography. On the other hand image is nothing but photograph, drawing, illustration, design, shape and outline, line, tone or texture of anything used in the artwork of graphic design.
The visual language is developed with the combination of typography and images through a creative process. The media for expressing information, message and idea in this language are logo, poster, book cover, illustrations, advertisements, and packaging web pages etc. Here an identical entity of information or idea is created by using typography and image separately or combining the both in a single composition. In course of time, this entity through the eyes of audience gives a visual impression in their mind permanently as it is unique in terms of style, sign and symbol. At this stage, graphic design helps to draw attention of the target audience and potential clients to the subject. They are stimulated and motivated by graphic design as their mental state becomes closer to the subject matter and after being attacked by the entertaining visual presentation their thought process becomes updated.
Thus a relationship of perception is developed among the audience, based on basic visual communication. For example when we see a sign of arrow, we can understand the direction. Similarly we can relate the sign of Red Cross or Red Crescent to the Medicare services. A red circle on the green rectangular background represents Bangladesh. Alphabate 'v' is presented as Latin-5 to the school students, but when put it is in a design with the image of a flying white pigeon on the background of blue sky then 'liberty' or 'victory' is expressed.
Artwork of graphic design is generally done to present information, identity, message, directives and idea of four subject-sectors. These are: 1. Institution: State, organisation, forces, foundation, Association, Institution, Individual (state/national emblem, Red cross, Red Cresant, Swsrlika, 'R' sign of Rubindranath, seal etc); 2. Publication /Product: Type set, Books, Magazines, Poster, T-Shirts, Packaging; 3. Service: Education, Development, Tourism, Hotel, Medicare, Telecom, Service Centers; 4. Event: Festival, Exhibition, Anniversary, Conference, Expedition, Meetings, Workshop, and Preparation.
Fields of artwork- 1. Logo or monogram, Pictogram; 2. Typography, Calligraphy; 3. Poster, Show-card, Bill-board; 4. Book covers, Feature pages of magazines, web-pages; 5. Illustration, Drawing, cartoon, Design, Graphics; 6. Advertisement, Leaf-lets, Folder, TV telop; 7. Packaging, Hanging; 8. Stamp, Bond, Currency notes; 9. Calendar, Map, Graph-Chart; 10. Animation, Laser Display etc.
As a creative process of expressing idea and theme visually, graphic design is practiced and studied worldwide in different forms from the ancient age. In the ancient cave painting, the symbolic pictures of hunter beside the well illustrated bison are not simple and ordinary artworks. These pictures carry idea, message, information limits and directives about hunting rituals. The cave paintings are regarded as the oldest visual artwork. During the ancient civilization, people of Mesopotamia (cuneiform), Egypt and Sindhu used to express their ideas and thoughts through symbolic signs of seal and paintings. Typography of Indian sub-continent was developed from the ancient inscription of Asoka and Bengal typography got the present form after a series of transformation.
Audio-visual technology has become very essential component of graphic arts with the wide expansion of Information Technology. Now Graphic design is considered as the most effective and aesthetically attractive medium of visual communication. [Maksudur Rahman]