Jujube (baroi) Jujube is one of the popular fruits in Bangladesh. Everybody like it for its different taste and flavor. Jujube is nutritionally rich. Rich in vitamin A and C. The origin of jujube is the northern part of India, South-west part of China and midland of Malaysia. Jujube also grown in the arid region of Africa and America.
Jujube can be eaten as fresh and processed. Jujube contains 85.9% water, 0.8% protein, 0.1% fat, 12.8% carbohydrate, 0.03% calcium, 0.03% phosphorus, 0.8% iron. Per 100g edible portion, jujube contains 55KCAL, 70 IU carotene and 50-150mg vit C. Jujube used in different food preparation like jam, jelly, chatney, pickles, juice etc. Lac also produced in the jujube tree with the help of insect Tachardia laccad.
Species and variety Jujube belong to the genus Zizyphus which consisted about 40 species. Among these species Z. mauritiana and Z. jujuba are the cultivated ones. Z. mauritiana is called Indian jujube and Z. jujuba is called Chinese jujube. The popular varieties in Bangladesh are BAU kul, 1, 2, BARI kul 1, 2, Narkeli, Sabzi, Apple etc.
Narkeli kul Fruits elongated like spindle shaped. Seed also elongated and small. Flesh are sweet and tasty. Satkhira, Rajshahi and its surrounding areas are the major production areas.
Comilla kul This variety is grown in the Kachua, Barura and Chandina areas of Comilla. Locally it is called Dab kul since it looks like dab. Sweet and attractive variety.
BAU Kul 1 BAU Germplasm Center (GPC), Bangladesh Agricultural University developed this variety. Nowadays this variety become the most popular one. Now it growing all over the Bangladesh, particularly in saline areas like Bagerhat, Stakhira etc and sandy areas like Saint Martin, Sonadia Island, Cox's Bazar and hilly areas like Khagrachari, Rangamati. Fruit weight ranges from 90 to 250g. Sweetness 18-21 (TSS). Seed occupies only 3-4% of the edible portion. Plants are spine less, quick growing fruiting within 4-5 months of planting.
BAU Kul 2 (Shah Kul) This one was also developed by GPC-BAU. Fruit weight is 100-200g. Highly sweet ranging from 19-25 TSS. Seeds are small. Variety is dwarf. Flesh is crispy, juicy and sweet flavored.
Apple kul Apple like attractive fruit. Fruit crispy and sweet, colored and quick growing. Less dropping of fruits.
Jujube is hardy plant and grown in a wide range of environments. It can tolerate drought and is grown upto 1000m high. Generally dry and hot weather is good for jujube. It can tolerate any kind of soil but heavy and slight alkaline soil is the best.
Jujube can be propagated both sexually and asexually. Hard seed coat needs stratification i.e. should be kept in hot sand for two months for enhancing the germination and then seed is germinated within 4-8 weeks. Budding and grafting is now widely used method. Cleft grafting is now the most popular method for jujube.
Cultivation Jujube can be planted through out the year but March to May is the best time for planting. Deep loamy or fertile soil is the best. Planting should be done at the spacing of 3 in the pit of 75-100cm diameter and depth. Before planting in a pit, 20-30 kg well decomposed cowdung, 150g TSP, 150g MP, 100g Urea and 100-200g decomposed oil cake should be applied. In the first planted crops before and after rainy season 50g of each MP and TSP and 20 g of Urea, 20-30kg cowdung and 100g oil cake need to be applied. Amount of fertilizers should be increased as the age of the plants increases.
Irrigation and drainage After fertilization irrigation is essential. Drainage during rainy season and light irrigation during drought is required.
Other operations Jujube fruits generally born on newly emerged branches so pruning is essential for jujube. Off shoots (shoots arising from below the graft Union) should be removed. After harvesting of the fruits generally at the end of March all branches keeping 3-5 feet height should be deheaded. Coal tar should be applied on the cut surface. No wild jujube plants should be allowed near the jujube garden to avoid disease like powdery mildew, fruit fly etc.
Cultivation in Tub/Half drum Jujube can be grown successfully in the tub or in half drum. Planting in Mar-May in Tub having 50% well decomposed cowdung and 50% loamy soil can be done. As the new shoots arises, 2-3 tablet fertilizers (silvamax/Silvamix forte) may be applied at 5-7cm depth. Irrigation and drainage should be done properly.
Insects and diseases Fruit fly damages ripe fruits; fruit borer eats flesh and some times seeds as well. All these should be controlled by applying dimecron/decis/simbush @ 2ml/litre of water. Lac insect eating young leaves need to be controlled in the same way. White fly also some time become serious problem for jujube which may be controlled by spraying detergent powder @ 10g/litre of water. Powdery mildew and fruit rot can be controlled by applying 1% Dithsne M-45 2-3 times at a interval of 7 days.
Nowadays, shooty mould become the serious pest in Jujube. Shooty mould blackened the leaves hampering photosynthesis may also be controlled by spraying detergent powder @ 10g/litre of water.
Intercrop Potato, sweet potato, chilli, leafy vegetables, garlic, ginger and turmeric can be grown as intercrop with jujube.
Harvesting and yield Yellowing is the indication of ripening. Harvesting may be done periodically so that rightly mature fruit can be harvested. Per hectare yield may be 8-12 tons. [MA Rahim]