Qadiriah is an ascetic order of sufi tariqa (path of God). The order was instituted in the 12th century by Hazrat Saiyed Abdul Qader Gilani (R) (died 1166 AD). Following the words of the Prophet (Sm), 'Poverty is my pride', the faqirs (darwishes), in an effort to follow the most painful exercises of exaggerated devotion, abstained from all worldly enjoyment. This is why many also call the order fakiri. Followers of Qadiriah tariqa perform zikr ie, pious recital in loud voice.
Abdul Qader Gilani (R) was a reformer. During the time of his advent, the Abbaside Empire was crumbling, Christians had occupied Jerusalem, and secret killings had become a widespread phenomenon. Hazrat Gilani (R) taught in a madrasah and regularly preached lessons and sermons. He wrote and compiled many books and noted among them were Fath-al-Rabbani, Qasida, and Futuh-ul-Ghaib. Futuh-al-Ghaib has been translated into Bangla by Moulana Mohammad Hasan.
Hazrat Gilani (R) always placed shariat above all things. He never neglected namaz or any other rituals of faith in the ecstasy of meditation. Even before breathing his last, while he was on the sick bed, he performed his ablutions and finished his prayers. The day of his death, 11th Rabius-Sani, known as Fatiha-i-Yazdaham, is observed with religious fervour by many in Bangladesh.
Hazrat Gilani (R) first spread the tariqa in Baghdad. Later it spread in many countries of Asia and Africa, including Egypt, Morocco, Turkey and India. Hazrat Abdur Razzaq, one of his disciples, came to India in 1766 AD. His descendants settled first in Midnapur and then in Kolkata. There are many followers of Qadiriah tariqa in Bangladesh. [Meer Mobashsher Ali]