Wall Flora primarily herbaceous plants that grow on walls or old brick works. Sometimes after secondary succession, woody or shrubby plants may also grow. The pioneering plants are the mosses. After accumulation of dust and organic matters around creeks of the walls, seeds of those plants start germinating during the monsoon months ie between June and August; the flowering and fruiting months are September-November.
About 200 angiosperms under 40 families have been recorded as wall flora in Bangladesh. Dicotyledonous plants dominate over monocotyledonous plants (ratio 6:1). Grasses and sedges are the dominant monocotyledonous plants. Among Dicotyledons, species belonging to Compositae (Asteraceae), Euphorbiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, and Amaranthaceae are most common. Some pteridophytes such as Adiantum, Pteris, Cheilanthes, Christella and Drynaria, are also common. [Mostafa Kamal Pasha]