Bulbul moderate-sized, gregarious and mostly dull coloured birds, with soft, long and fluffy plumage of the family Pycnonotidae, order Passeriformes. Bill short to medium, slightly curved. Legs short and rather weak. Wings short and rounded, tail comparatively long. Hairlike feathers on nape and rectal bristles usually well developed. Bulbuls are common inhabitants of gardens, cultivation and secondary jungle.
They feed on fruits, nectar, berries and insects. Sometimes several species feed together in fruiting trees. Call notes are often harsh. Most have sprightly musical calls. Sexes generally alike. Nests are built in tree forks or in, bushes; eggs 2-5. Incubation period is 10-15 days and usually carried out by the female. Both parents feed the chicks.
The family has 120 species worldwide, 39 in Southeast Asia, 21 in the subcontinent. In Bangladesh there are 11 species under six genera which are as follows: White-throated Bulbul (Alophoixus flaveolus), Ashy Bulbul (Hemixos flavala), Black Bulbul (Hypsipetes leucocephalus), Mountain Bulbul (H. macclellandii), Olive Bulbul (Iole virescens), Black-headed Bulbul (Pycnonotus articeps), Red-vented Bulbul (P. cafer), Flavescent Bulbul (P. flavescens), Red-whiskered Bulbul (P. jocosus), Black-crested Bulbul (P. melanicterus) and Crested Finch-bill (Spizixos canifrons). [M Khalilur Rahman]