Satkhira District

Satkhira District (khulna division) area 3817.29 sq km, located in between 21°36' and 22°54' north latitudes and in between 88°54' and 89°20' east longitudes. It is bounded by jessore district on the north, the bay of bengal on the south, khulna district on the east, west bengal state of India on the west.

Population Total 1985959; male 982777, female 1003182; Muslim 1625782, Hindu 351551, Buddhist 18, Christian 6178 and others 2430.

Water bodies Main rivers: jamuna, kalindi, arpangachhia, Malanchha, kobadak, Raimangal, Betna, Hariabhanga, ichamati.

Administration Satkhira Sub-division was established in 1861 under Jessore district. It was included into Khulna district in 1882. The sub-division was turned into a district in 1984 as a result of the administrative decentralisation. Satkhira Municipality was formed in 1889. This district is located on the south west extremity of Bangladesh. Of the seven upazilas of the district shyamnagar is the largest (1968.24 sq km) and debhata is the smallest (176.33).

Area (sq km) Upazila Municipality Union Mouza Village Population Density (per sq km) Literacy rate (%)
Urban Rural
3817.29 7 2 79 953 1,441 197616 1788343 520 52.1
Others Information of District
Name of Upazila Area (sq km) Municipality Union Mouza Village Population Density (per sq km) Literacy rate (%)
Assasuni 374.81 - 11 143 241 268754 717 49.8
Kalaroa 231.42 1 12 112 136 237992 1028 50.9
Kaliganj 333.78 - 12 243 254 274889 824 51.8
Tala 337.24 - 12 151 229 299820 889 50.9
Debhata 173.21 - 5 59 125 125358 724 53.6
Shyamnagar 1968.23 - 13 126 218 318254 162 48.6
Satkhira Sadar 398.57 1 14 119 238 460892 1156 56.5

Source  Bangladesh Population Census 2011, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.

War of Liberation The Swadin Bangla Satra Sangram Parishad conducted initial resistance against the Pak army on 26 March 1971. During the period from 14 to 17 April they captured all the arms and ammunitions from the Treasury. On 18 April they also looted money from the National Bank of Pakistan and deposited to Indian Reserve Bank in the account of the Bangladesh Government in exile. On 20 April the Pak army conducted mass killing at Jhaudanga on their entry to Satkhira. On 21 April the Pak army killed about 200 people at the Refugee Camp of Satkhira Government High School (formerly Satkhira Town School) and the nearby residences. An encounter was held on 29 April between the freedom fighters and the Pak army at Bhomra in which four freedom fighters were killed and so were many Pakistani soldiers. On 6 May 11 freedom fighters were killed in an encounter with the Pak army at Garura of Shyamnagar upazila. On 7 June 8 freedom fighters including Nazmul Arefin Khokon and Shamsuzzaman Kajol were killed in an encounter with the Pak army at village Town Sreepur under Debhata upazila. On 17 July the freedom fighters raided the Pak military camp at Baikari under Satkhira Sadar upazila and killed 7 Pakistani soldiers. On 16 August three freedom fighters were killed while they attacked two Pak military gunboats in the Kholpetua river of Assasuni upazila. On 9 September the Pak army, in collaboration with the local razakars, launched a surprise attack on the Harinagar Bazar of Shyamnagar upazila and killed 28 persons; they also sacked the Bazar. A number of razakars were killed in an encounter with the freedom fighters at village Goaldanga under Assasuni upazila. On 18 September the freedom fighters raided the Hatatganj defense camp of Pak army and killed 29 Pakistani soldiers; but in a counter attack by Pak army on 20 September, 17 freedom fighters were killed and three were arrested by the Pak army. On 21 November 9 freedom fighters were killed while they raided the Pak army camp located at Kulia Bridge under Debhata upazila; in this raid the Pak army left the camp having faced heavy causality. Besides, the Pak army killed about 300 refugees at Parulia Sapmara Canal on their way to India. There are mass graves at 2 places (Debhata, Kalaroa Bazar at Shyamnagar upazila) and 6 mass killing site (at a place adjacent to Satkhira Government Boys’ High School, homestead of Dinesh Karmakar and the adjacent pond at the backside of the Satkhira Government School, Binerpota Bridge, Bankal and Gangni Bridge, Mahmudpur High School, Harinagar and Kathkhali at Shyamnagar); 5 memorial monuments have been built (at Baliadanga and Kalaroa, Gopalpur and Harinagar of Shyamnagar, Satkhira Sadar) and a memorial plate was founded at Murarikati at Kalaroa. Three roads have been named after Shaheed Siraj (at Jhaudanga of Satkhira Sadar), and Shahid Kazal and Shahid Nazmul at Debhata).

Literacy rate and educational institutions Average literacy 52.1%; male 56.1%, female 48.2%. Educational institutions: polytechnic institution 1, primary teachers training centre 1, college 40, secondary school 243, primary school 1311, madrasa 168. Noted educational institutions: Satkhira Government Mohila College, Satkhira Government College, Khan Bahadur Ahsanullah College (1995), Satkhira Day-Night College, Satkhira City College, Babulia Joymoni Sreenath Institution (1883), Khalishkhali Magura SC Collegiate Institution (1899), Dhandia Institution (1915), Debhata BBMP Institution (1919), Satkhira Polytechnic Institution, Prananath High School (1862), Talabede Government High School (1888), Nakipur Haricharan High School ((1899), Kumira Multilateral High School (1914), Budhhata BBM Higher Secondary School (1915), Town Sreepur Sharatchandra High School (1916), Nalta High School (1917), Kaliganj High School (1936), Parulia SS High School (1976), Nabarun High School, Sree Ula Secondary School (1881), Assasuni Secondary School (1911), Bahera AT Secondary School (1927), Khalishkhali Shaiba Girls' Secondary School (1928), Islamkati Girls' Secondary School (1929), Satkhira PNP Collegiate School (1846), Satkhira Government' Boys' School, Satkhira Government Girls' School.

Main sources of income Agriculture 62.56%, non-agricultural labourer 4.33%, industry 1.51%, commerce 16.23%, transport and communication 3.03%, service 4.86%, construction 1.01%, religious service 0.19%, rent and remittance 0.34% and others 5.94%.

Newspapers and periodicals Daily: Kafela, Satkhira Chitra, Patradut, Dristipat; weekly: Dakhinayan, Satkhira Digest, The Juger Barta, Sahajatri, Ajker Satkhira; monthly: Chharar Dak, Pragalav (Assasuni); quarterly: Ikkhan, Dakhiner Janala, Saumma, Pratya (Assasuni); periodicals: Kaliganj Barta, Gram Bangla, Saikat, Samatat, Suryashikha, Pathikrit, Surya Tarun, Ayan (Nurnagar, Shyamnagar), Pratya (Shyamnagar); defunct: Masjed (1917), Annandamaye (1926), Korak (1962), Ananna Swadesh (1965), Progati (1966), Jonaki (hand written magazine, 1967), Annesan (1974), Kalatan (1978).

Folk culture Notable folk culture of the district include Jarigan, Punthi path (recitation of Puthi), Rath Mela, boat race, horse race, etc.

Important installations and tourist spots the sundarbans (the largest mangrove forest), Kothabari Than Fort (Kalaroa), Sonabaria Math (Kalaroa), Pancha Mandir (Annapunna Mandir, Kali Mandir, Shiva Mandir, Kal Bhairab Mandir and Radha Govinda Mandir), Jahajghata Naval Fort (Shyamnagar), Mazar of Hazrat Aziz (R) (Assasuni). [Amirul Ashraf]

See also The upazilas under this district.

References Bangladesh Population Census 2001 and 2011, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; Cultural survey report of Satkhira District 2007; Cultural survey report of upazilas of Satkhira District 2007.