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26 May 2024

13 October 2023

  • 21:0421:04, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1 Welcome to BanglapediaNo edit summary current
  • 21:0221:02, 13 October 2023 diff hist +24 N Category:ArchitectureCreated page with "Category:Banglapedia" current
  • 20:4820:48, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,237 N Germ CellCreated page with "'''Germ Cell''' the term 'germ' has derived from the Latin word 'germen' which means seed or sprout. The central component of animal reproduction is the germ cell.. These cells are responsible for making connectivity between generations by passing down the information from one generation to another. Nussbaum-Weismann first provided the concept of germ cells. These cells serve as the means by which the genome and cytoplasmic components are passed to the progeny, mostly t..." current
  • 20:4820:48, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,740 N Genotoxic CarcinogenCreated page with "'''Genotoxic Carcinogen''' act directly on DNA to cause cancer, such as chemical carcinogens, eg, Benzo[a]pyrane of cigarette smoke, physical carcinogens, eg, UV radiation, and biological carcinogens, eg, EBV/HPV. Cancer development is a multi-step process involving initiation, promotion, and progression. The initiator or in vivo metabolites, eg, Benzo[a]pyrane, cause irreversible mutation to DNA that becomes susceptible to promoter action for being transformed into c..." current
  • 20:4820:48, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,195 N Genome EditingCreated page with "'''Genome Editing''' the term 'genome' refers to the entire genetic material of an organism or species. An organism's genome contains all the genetic information of that organism. Generally, an organism's genome is the sum of all the cell's DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules. For RNA (ribonucleic acid) viruses, the genome is the entire RNA molecules of that virus. By making specific changes in any part of the genome sequence of a particular organism, desired charac..." current
  • 20:4820:48, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,577 N GenomeCreated page with "'''Genome''' the entire genetic information of a living organism is called its genome.All of the hereditary information that is required for the creation and maintenance of life and reproduction are contained within a genome. In humans, a complete copy of the genome is present in the majority of the cells of the body. The genome consists of both the coding and the noncoding DNA, along with chloroplast DNA and mitochondrial DNA. The human genome includes both nuclear and..." current
  • 20:4820:48, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,212 N Genetically Modified OrganismCreated page with "'''Genetically Modified Organism''' (GMO) a gene codes for a functional protein such as an enzyme which can then produce a metabolite like a glucose molecule. Metabolites, in turn, are responsible for cell function. Many cells together make an organ, and many organs constitute a living organism. Due to variation in the string of nucleotides (made up of sugar, nitrogenous base, and phosphate) that make up a gene, its efficacy in producing the relevant protein may be low..." current
  • 20:4820:48, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,780 N Genetic DiseaseCreated page with "'''Genetic Disease''' a genetic disease is a health condition caused by an abnormality in the genome. The genome is the total collection of genetic material which is organized inside the nucleus of a cell as microscopic assemblies known as chromosomes. The human genome consists of approximately 25,000 genes. A gene is a segment of DNA that influences a particular biological function and is passed down from parent to offspring. Genetic disease is caused by a change or mu..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,765 N Functional FoodCreated page with "'''Functional Food''' are everyday foods that offer us additional support for one or more organs in both healthy and pathological conditions. Functional foods offer active bioactive compound(s) in addition to their regular nutritional content, and those bioactive compound(s) exhibit additional positive health effects. Functional foods are becoming progressively well-liked over the globe these days. People who live in developed nations include functional foods in their e..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,398 N Foot and Mouth DiseaseCreated page with "'''Foot and Mouth Disease''' (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of all cloven-footed animals, primarily cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep, deer and pigs. This is also called Khurarog, Khurachol and Batna in Bangladesh. The leading cause of FMD is an RNA virus called Apthovirus under Picornaviridae family. There are seven distinct serotypes (A, O, C, Asia-1, SAT-1, SAT-2, SAT-3) and 62 sub-types of the virus. The reported serotypes in Bangladesh are A, O, C, Asia-1..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,943 N Food ToxicologyCreated page with "'''Food Toxicology''' deals with the toxic effects of natural and synthetic poisons and toxicants present in diverse foods and food products. Food toxicology is an important branch of food chemistry, and this area of science is gaining importance as the food supply chain is taking a multidimensional and multinational approach. So any level of contamination or intoxication will have widespread adverse health effects. Food toxicology deals with the toxic effects of food o..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,481 N FlyoverCreated page with "right|thumbnail|400px|A section of Mayor Mohammed Hanif Flyover '''Flyover''' a flyover or overpass is a bridge that carries an elevated roadway or railway line over another roadway or railway line, including or excluding supplementary roads to communicate between the two. When two roads cross on the same level, both are closed and opened in turns by signal, and the traffic movement at the crossing point becomes half. This system causes delays and..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,937 N FertilizationCreated page with "'''Fertilization''' is the union of two haploid gametes, sperm, and ovum, to restore a diploid individual in the form of the zygote. The male and female gametes are produced from the founder or germ cells of the testis and ovary through a process called spermatogenesis in males and oogenesis in females. The spermatogenesis process starts after the onset of puberty due to the influence of the male sex hormone testosterone, which produces millions of sperm in a continuous..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,962 N FertilityCreated page with "'''Fertility''' is the natural capability to produce offspring through regular sexual activity following the onset of puberty. Fertility is one of the main factors affecting the reproductive efficiency directly involved with the profit-loss equation of any farm, and herd fertility is the sole indicator of good or bad reproductive management practice. Fertility is directly associated not only with the female health condition but also equally important for contribution of..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,249 N FermentationCreated page with "'''Fermentation''' is a metabolic process carried out by microorganisms that produce chemical alterations in organic matter due to the action of enzymes. The word 'ferment' comes from the Latin word 'fervere', which means 'to boil'. Ironically, fermentation is possible without heat, and the science of fermentation is known as zymology. Fermentation is a natural process that usually takes place in anaerobic conditions (without oxygen) and in the presence of beneficial mic..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,697 N Environmental PollutionCreated page with "'''Environmental Pollution''' can be defined as any unwanted change in chemical,physical, or biological features of any component of the environment, ie, water, air, or soil, which can cause damaging effects on several forms of living systems. Water pollution is caused by natural or human activities and makes water unusable. The polluted water cannot be used for drinking, domestic activities, irrigation of crops, or industrial purposes. The major causes of water polluti..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,086 N EmbryoCreated page with "'''Embryo''' is the early developmental stage of all multicellular organisms. In general, embryonic development is the part of the life cycle that begins just after fertilization. The fertilized egg undergoes a series of cellular divisions known as cleavage without increasing cell mass up until 6 or 7 days and moving downward gradually in the fallopian tube. Only nuclear material (chromatin) is synthesized between divisions at the expense of the cytoplasmic substance of..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist 0 N Elevated ExpresswayCreated blank page current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,204 N EcologyCreated page with "'''Ecology''' is the study of the relationship between organisms with the surrounding environment. It is a branch of biological science. German Biologist Earnest Haeckle coined the term Ecology in 1906 from two Greek words Oikos means house logos means study. It is a science that investigates organisms concerning the environment. Moreover, it is the study of the structure and functions of nature. It has excellent practical implications on environmental interaction among..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +3,091 N Ecological ChemistryCreated page with "'''Ecological Chemistry''' a research discipline that deals with understanding complex interactions between or among different organisms in a given ecosystem via chemical signals. Ecological chemistry is evolved by cross-fertilizing two diverse disciplines: ecology and biochemistry. It is the study of chemicals involved in the interactions of living organisms. Ecological chemistry is everywhere. Chemically-mediated interactions between organisms are pervasive at all lev..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,631 N EarthwormCreated page with "'''Earthworm''' are typical annelids, ie, true segmented coelomate invertebrate worms that live in moist soil environments under three broad habitats, epigeic (litter dwelling), endogeic (soil-dwelling), and anecic (deep burrowing). They are nocturnal, and thus people cannot see them during day time. The naming of earthworms is due to their common occurrences in unpolluted cultivated lands where piles of fecal casting can be seen at the mouth of a tunnel they live in. T..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,632 N DodhiCreated page with "'''Dodhi''' or Doi is a kind of fermented food that originated from milk. Milk is converted into Dodhi due to the fermentation of lactose, the carbohydrate present in milk, by some special types of bacteria. Doi can be made by coagulating milk by adding starter culture at 2-3% to lukewarm milk and keeping it at 37-42°C temperature for 4-12 hours. In general, dodhi made before 2-3 days is considered a starter culture rich in beneficial bacteria. The carbohydrate in milk..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,041 N DNA FingerprintingCreated page with "'''DNA Fingerprinting''' are a scientific way to identify a person based on the information contained in a DNA molecule. It uses advanced molecular techniques to identify or establish a link between two individuals by analyzing micro satellite sequences. Like the potential fingerprints at our fingertips, each individual has a unique DNA fingerprint. Traditional fingerprints can be modified by plastic surgery, but DNA is present in almost every cell of the human body and..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,114 N DNACreated page with "'''DNA''' Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the hereditary unit in humans and the majority of living organisms. All living things contain DNA within their cells that hold the genetic instructions. In eukaryotes, most of the cellular DNA is located within a membrane-bound structure called the nucleus (which is referred to as nuclear DNA), but the mitochondria may also contain a small amount of DNA (which is referred to as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). In contrast, in prokary..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,655 N Disease OutbreakCreated page with "'''Disease Outbreak''' a sudden rise in the number of cases of a disease over normal expectancy in a geographical location or season, ie, above the baseline or endemic level of the disease. It may involve a small and localized community or impact thousands of people across continents. The occurrences of disease cases depend on the disease-causing agent and the size, existing, and previous exposure to the agents. Several outbreak patterns can help identify the transmissi..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,808 N Diphtheria ToxinCreated page with "'''Diphtheria Toxin''' a potentially lethal infection mainly caused by toxigenic ''Corynebacterium diphtheriae'' strains. A similar illness could be produced occasionally by ''Corynebacterium ulcerans'' and rarely by ''Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis'' strains. In general, the bacterium ''C. diphtheriae'' was found only in the upper respiratory tract of cattle, horses, and men. The first diphtheria epidemic occurred in Spain in 1613, and Pierre Bretonneau named the d..."
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,912 N DentifriceCreated page with "'''Dentifrice''' is a powder, paste, or liquid, used along with a toothbrush to remove dental stains and food debris, minimize the plaque build-up, strengthen teeth against caries, alleviate sensitivity, and introduce a fresh, pleasantness and clean feeling. Tooth powder was historically used as a dentifrice among the Romans. They made tooth powder from various substances, such as the bones and horns of animals; crabs; oyster shells; and eggshells, sometimes after being..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,813 N DecontaminationCreated page with "'''Decontamination''' is a process of elimination or destruction of contaminants or pollutants or harmful agents, or hazardous materials present in or on an object or area. Contaminants can be toxins, poisons, chemicals, radioactive substances, and microbes or infectious components. Decontamination processes make equipment, devices, foodstuff, and the environment safe to protect us and our surroundings. Cleaning (physical removal of contaminants including dust, soil, an..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,297 N Cow DungCreated page with "'''Cow Dung''' is the waste product (faces) of bovine animal species. These species include cattle, buffalo, bison, yak, and water buffalo. The undigested residue of feeds is passed through the animals' digestive systems. Cow dung, usually a dark brown, is often used as excellent manure (agricultural fertilizer). Cow dung compost is a fertilizer produced by rotting cow dung and waste in an anaerobic or aerobic way in the ground. Cow dung harbors a diverse group of micro..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,123 N CoronavirusCreated page with "'''Coronavirus''' are zootonic viruses that are enveloped and have positive-sense, single-stranded RNA. Alpha, beta, gamma, and delta are the four genera of coronaviruses. The most pathogenic forms that have been found in their natural habitats, bats, are the alpha and beta forms. Besides, palm civets and camels are believed to have acted as the intermediate for transmitting SARS to humans. Out of the seven coronaviruses, the highly pathogenic and contagious Severe Acut..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,788 N Climate ChangeCreated page with "'''Climate Change''' is the record of change in weather patterns over a long period, often over several years. Therefore climate change will typically refer to seasonal weather patterns and rainfall over several years. Climate change can indicate the average local pattern of the weather or that of the earth compared to a few years ago. Compared to pre-industrial levels, the average global temperature has increased by about 1.5°C compared to pre-industrial levels. This..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,791 N ChickenCreated page with "'''Chicken''' the chicken (''Gallus gallus domesticus'') is a domesticated subspecies of the red jungle fowl originally from Southeastern Asia and belongs to the genus Gallus of the family Phasianidae. A rooster or cock is an adult male chicken with coarse skin, toughened and darkened meat, and hardened breastbone tip, and a younger male may be called a cockerel. A male that has been castrated is a capon. An adult female bird is called a hen, and a sexually immature fem..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,887 N ChemotherapyCreated page with "'''Chemotherapy''' is defined as using powerful chemical compounds as drugs to kill rapidly growing cells in the body. While chemotherapy is mostly used to treat cancer cells due to their rapid growth, it could also be used to treat bone marrow disorders and immune system diseases. Many different chemotherapeutic drugs are available in the market, which can be used alone or in combination to treat different types of cancer. Major categories of chemotherapy agents includ..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +3,514 N CheeseCreated page with "'''Cheese''' or Paneer is a kind of dairy product that is made by special processing of curd. A special type of protein named casein in milk plays an important role in making cheese. Curd obtained by coagulating milk with the help of an enzyme or acid is separated and then processed through several steps to concentrate protein and fat while making cheese. In the final stage, the curd is cured at a specific temperature and humidity with the help of selected microorganisms..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,865 N CelluloseCreated page with "'''Cellulose''' is the most common biopolymer, and it can be found in an extensive range of living organisms that employ it as a support material. It is a crucial constituent in the firm cell wall of plants. In 1838, the French chemist Anselme Payen first discovered cellulose when studying plant cell walls. Cellulose is made up of a 10,000 to 15,000 linear chain of glucose molecules joined by acetal oxygen covalent links between the C1 of one glucose ring with the C4 of..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,108 N CellCreated page with "'''Cell''' are the basic building blocks of all living things.All living beings are composed of cells and they are the smallest units of a structure in every living thing. Some organisms are unicellular in which the entire organism is a single cell, such as a bacterium or yeast. On the other hand, in plants and animals, cells are the building blocks of these multicellular organisms. A cell is an individual unit in the sense that it is capable of metabolizing its nutrien..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,691 N CamphorCreated page with "'''Camphor''' is a wax-like, combustible and transparent solid with a heavy aromatic odor. It is resembled by the formula C<sub>10</sub>H<sub>16</sub>O and chemically it’s a terpenoid. Camphor is found in different essential oils in both of its two enantiomeric states. The oil of camphor wood, ''Cinnamomumcamphora'' L. Sieb is the highest source of camphor and in some related varieties, notably ''Ocoteausambarensis'' Eng., it is also abundant. Besides, camphor contrib..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,815 N Blood ThinnerCreated page with "'''Blood Thinner''' blood thinners are pharmacological products or drugs that help smooth flow of blood through the blood vessels and prevent existing coagulated blood from getting larger. Formation of clot in the blood vessels (including veins, arteries or capillaries) and heart can cause blockages, strokes, and heart attacks. Blood thinners do not actually make the blood thinner or dissolve clots, but they prevent free-flowing blood from forming new lumps and restrict..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,630 N Blood PressureCreated page with "'''Blood Pressure''' is the pressure or force of blood provided against the blood vessel wall. When the heart contracts, it forces the blood out of the left ventricle. Upon exclusion, it travels through blood vessels to different body parts. While moving, it exerts a force on the blood vessel. Due to friction of blood with the blood vessel, pressure arises that is called blood pressure. Most of the blood is forcefully released from the heart when the heart contracts. Th..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,335 N BloodCreated page with "'''Blood''' is perhaps the most complex fluid found in nature and it is essential to life of humans and other vertebrates. Blood is a suspension of cells in an aqueous medium containing many micro- and macro-molecules, including various proteins, hormones, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, glucose, and nutrients. Blood is circulated throughout the body to deliver nutrients and oxygen to cells of the body, and transport metabolic waste products including carbon dioxide aw..." current
  • 20:4720:47, 13 October 2023 diff hist +1,766 N BloatCreated page with "'''Bloat''' is a serious health problem of domestic ruminants. A bloat is a form of indigestion marked by excessive gas accumulation in the rumen. During digestion, gas is produced as part of the normal process and is usually released by the eructation process from the body. Bloat happens when any reason disrupts this eructation process loss of gas. There are two types of bloat. The most common type of blot is gassy bloat and the second type of bloat is frothy bloat. T..." current
  • 20:4620:46, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,108 N Black QuarterCreated page with "'''Black Quarter''' the disease Black Quarter is also known as Black leg and Badla in Bangala. In Bangladesh, this disease is mostly found in the rainy season, and hence the disease is named Badla. It is an acute, highly fatal infectious disease in cattle and sheep. The disease primarily affects the younger stocks, aged between 6 months to 2 years in cattle. The disease affects ruminants all over the world. The organism of this disease mainly affects leg and neck muscle..." current
  • 20:4620:46, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,779 N BiosafetyCreated page with "'''Biosafety''' refers to the safe handling and containment of biohazards (hazardous biological substances) and also prevents the large-scale loss of biological integrity. In health and medicine, the biosafety discipline takes measures to dwindle the health risk from potential exposure to biohazards by preventing personnel exposure and environmental release.The biosafety practices are based on two principles: biorisk assessment and biocontainment. Biorisk assessment is..." current
  • 20:4620:46, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,105 N BiopolymersCreated page with "'''Biopolymers''' are polymers that formed in natural conditions by complex metabolic processes during cell’s growth cycles of most organisms. To synthesize biopolymers living organisms use simple monomeric units such as sugars, sugar derivatives, amino acids, nucleotides, etc. Starch, cellulose, alginate, lignin, gelatin, proteins, peptides, & nucleic acids are all examples of biopolymers. These biopolymers contribute a significant fraction of cellular dry weight in..." current
  • 20:4620:46, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,295 N BiopharmaceuticalsCreated page with "'''Biopharmaceuticals''' the term ‘Pharmaceutical’ indicates any drug or medicine used for medical purposes. The pharmaceuticals that are obtained from biological sources are termed Biopharmaceuticals or biologics. However, some biotechnologists make a difference between biopharmaceuticals and biologics based on the methods employed to manufacture them. According to them, those products obtained from biological sources using biotechnological principles and procedure..." current
  • 20:4620:46, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,039 N BiomassCreated page with "'''Biomass''' is a plant and animal organic material that can be converted from chemical energy to thermal energy in a suitable process. The total amount of living and biological matter in every ecological area is scientifically measured as biomass. Although carbon is the main component of biomass, it usually contains hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, and it also includes some alkaline or acidic elements and heavy metals. The fundamental difference between biomass and fos..." current
  • 20:4620:46, 13 October 2023 diff hist +3,378 N Biological WeaponCreated page with "'''Biological Weapon''' the use of biological substances intended to cause harm, disable or even kill humans, animals or plants as a war act is known as biological weapon (bioweapon). The weapons can be either biological toxins (eg botulinum, ricin, etc) or disease-causing infectious agents like bacteria (eg, plague, anthrax, or Q fever), viruses (smallpox, hepatitis, etc.), insects and fungi. Biological weapon can also be called germ warfare. More than 180 pathogens ha..." current
  • 20:4620:46, 13 October 2023 diff hist +2,719 N BioinformaticsCreated page with "'''Bioinformatics''' emergence of bioinformatics was possible by the merging of two different areas- Biology and Computer science. The scope of bioinformatics involves deposition, storage, and retrieval, of biological data. It is a multidisciplinary field of science, which harnesses biology, medicine, mathematics, chemistry, computer science, information technology, and statistics to facilitate the analysis and interpretation the complex biological data, particularly in..." current
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