Comilla District

Comilla District (chittagong division) area 3034.74 sq km, located in between 23°02' and 24°47' north latitudes and in between 92°39' and 91°22' east longitudes. It is bounded by brahmanbaria and narayanganj districts on the north, noakhali and feni districts on the south, tripura state of India on the east, munshiganj and chandpur districts on the west.

Population Total 5177106; male 2476574, female 2700532; Muslim 4923572, Hindu 250843, Buddhist 1938, Christian 432 and others 321.

Water bodies Main rivers: meghna, gumti, dakatia, little feni, Buri; Karjon Canal is notable.

Administration The Comilla region was once under ancient Samatata and was later a part of the Tripura State. This district came under the control of the kings of the Harikela in the ninth century AD. Lalmai Mainamati was ruled by Deva dynasty (eighth century AD) and Chandra dynasty (during tenth and mid eleventh century AD). It came under the rule of East India Company in 1765. This district was established as Tippera district in 1790. The district was renamed Comilla in 1960. Chandpur and Brahmanbaria sub-divisions of this district were transformed into districts in 1984.

Area (sq km) Upazila Municipality Union Mouza Village Population Density (per sq km) Literacy rate (%)
Urban Rural
3034.74 16 10 174 2304 3339 840326 4336780 1706 53.3
Others Information of District
Name of upazila Area (sq km) Municipality Union Mouza Village Population Density (per sq km) Literacy rate (%)
Comilla Adarsha Sadar 142.72 1 6 146 193 5,32,419 3730 65.7
Chandina 201.01 1 13 121 223 350273 1742 51.0
Chauddagram 270.49 1 13 366 403 443648 1640 56.9
Titas 109.30 - 9 63 138 184617 1689 43.0
Daudkandi 314.99 1 15 169 267 349910 1111 50.7
Debidwar 238.65 1 15 129 192 431352 1807 52.8
Barura 241.69 1 14 213 314 405118 1676 52.1
Burichang 163.76 - 8 149 172 301825 1843 57.0
Brahmanpara 128.48 - 8 53 65 204691 1593 54.7
Manoharganj 159.33 - 11 146 181 244943 1537 55.9
Muradnagar 340.73 - 22 154 305 523556 1537 48.8
Meghna 99.57 - 7 39 102 112453 1129 44.6
Laksam 124.79 1 6 104 139 253650 2033 51.5
Nangalkot 225.95 1 12 193 270 373987 1655 51.2
Comilla Sadar Dakshin 136.61 1 6 166 207 258278 1891 55.1
Homna 142.78 1 9 73 154 206386 1445 39.7

Source Bangladesh Population Census 2011, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.

War of Liberation The general people of the upazila killed three members of the Pak EPR (East Pakistan Rifle) by beating on 27 March in the Shashidal EPR Camp. 18 Pak soldiers were killed in an encounter with the freedom fighters at a place near the Chhakarmar Bridge of the upazila towards the end of June 1971. 15 Pak soldiers including one Pak Captain were killed in an encounter with the freedom fighters of 4th Bengal Regiment at Holaimuri on the bank of the river Ghungur on the border of Kasba and Brahmanpara upazilas. The Pak army later established camps at nearby villages Chandla and Saitshala and killed more than one hundred persons and buried them in mass graves. There was an encounter between the Pak army and the local Bangali civilians on 31 March 1971 on the Comilla-Sylhet highway in Debidwar upazila in which 33 Bangali civilians were killed. About 200 innocent villagers were killed by the Pak army, by bomb explosion, at Ajgara Bazar of Laksam upazila on 6 April 1971. On 23 May the Pak army, in collaboration with the local rajakars, killed 11 innocent persons at village Raipur of Daudkandi upazila; they also set many houses, belonging to the freedom fighters and the Awami League leaders and supporters, of nearby Jinglatali and Harpur villages on fire. Besides, encounters were held between the freedom fighters and the Pak army at Goalmari Bazar of Daudkandi upazila in which about 200 Pak soldiers and local rajakars were killed and so were two freedom fighters. In the month of July an encounter was held between the Pak army and the freedom fighters at village Madaripur of Comilla Sadar Dakshin in which a number of people from both sides were killed or wounded. Besides, the Pak army brutally killed 5-7 innocent persons of Comilla Sadar Dakshin upazila. At the end of July the freedom fighters attacked the Pak army from both the banks while the Pak army was trying to enter the village Joypur of Homna upazila through the river Titas by launch. The launch carrying the Pak army was seriously damaged and many Pak soldiers were killed or wounded; they were also forced to retreat towards Machhimpur. Besides Joypur, encounters between the freedom fighters and the Pak army were held at Champak Nagar, Ghagutia, Nilkhi Bazar, Dulal Bazar, Homna Sadar and Panchatabati of Homna upazila in which about 23 freedom fighters were killed and 24 were wounded. Besides, the Pak army buried alive many innocent people at a place adjacent to the present Homna College. On 2nd September the Pak army attacked the camp of the freedom fighters and brutally killed 6 innocent persons. Five freedom fighters were killed in an encounter with the Pak army at Payalgacha Bat-tali of Barura upazila on 10 September. On 13 September an encounter was held between the freedom fighters and the Pak army at a place called Chaumuhani on the north of Hasnabad Bazar of Manoharganj upazila in which about 70 Pak soldiers were killed and so was one freedom fighter. During the war of liberation a number of encounters were held between the freedom fighters and the Pak army and rajakars in different places of Muradnagar upazila in which a number of freedom fighters were killed. One freedom fighter was killed in an encounter with the Pak army when they attacked the Burichang Police Station. Besides, 20 freedom fighters were killed in more than one clash with the Pak army in Burichang upazila. On 28 November the freedom fighters captured the Pak military camp located at Jagannath Dighi of Chauddagram upazila. Besides, in different encounters with the Pak army about 25 freedom fighters were killed. The Pak army conducted genocide at Char Kamta on 7 August, Jakerganj area on 29 September and at Thana Sadar on 14 November of Debidwar upazila and killed about one thousand innocent people. The Pak army killed 11 persons and buried them in a mass grave at Tejer Bazar of Nangalkot upazila. Besides, the rajakars of Nangalkot upazila killed one freedom fighter and buried him near the Hasanpur Railway station. On 11 December a frontal battle was fought between the freedom fighters and the Pak army in Chandina upazila in which about 1400 Pak soldiers surrendered to the freedom fighters. In another direct encounter between the freedom fighters and the Pak army at Kat-tala of this upazila 7 Pak soldiers were killed and so were three freedom fighters. Besides, 6 freedom fighters were killed in a battle with the Pak army at a place called Faoui. Mass killing sites had been discovered at 5 places (Bhuiya Bari of Uttar Chandla and house of Prabad Kumar Das of Dakshin Chandla, Puira Bridge on the east of Chandina High School, on the north west corner of Chandina Hospital, Sahapara Bridge on the south of Daudkandi Police station) of the district and there are mass graves at 12 places (Harimangal Pukur Par adjacent to the Brahmanpara Railway line, Kashimpur Shashan (cremation centre) of Chandina, Mahichail Baroipara and Kongai Barabari, at a place near the Homna Degree College, Narayanpur near Bat-tali of Barura), Debidwar Thana Sadar, Paschimgaon, Laksam Bidi Factory and Laksam Railway Junction, Parikot of Nangalkot and Tejer Bazar, Hasnabad of Manoharganj). Four memorial monuments are built in the district.

Literacy rate and educational institutions Average literacy 53.3%; male 54.1%, female 52.6%. Educational institutions: university 2, university college 4, medical college 1, teacher training college 2, law college 1, homeopath college 1, cooperative college 1, government commerce college 1, college 67, polytechnic institute 1, paramedical institute 1, primary education training institute 1, nursing training centre 1, secondary school 519, primary school 2133, survey institute 1, blind and deaf school 1. Noted educational institutions: Comilla Victoria University College (1899), Comilla Zila School (1837), Comilla High School (1842), Fazilatunnesa Government Girls' High School (1873), Bangra High School (1887), Shashidal Union High School (1890), Elliotganj RB High School (1908), Madhavpur Sheikhlal High School (1911), Raipur KC High School (1912), Chandina Pilot High School (1916), Ramchandrapur High School (1918), Debidwar Reazuddin High School (1918), Barpara Girls' High School (1919), Chandana KB High School (1920), Chauddagram HJ Pilot High School (1921), Burichang Ananda Pilot High School (1925), Homna Pilot High School (1929).

Main sources of income Agriculture 47.31%, non-agricultural labourer 2.54%, industry 1.25%, commerce 15.78%, transport and communication 4.05%, service 11.80%, construction 1.48%, religious service 0.35%, rent and remittance 4.83% and others 10.61%.

Newspapers and periodicals Daily: Rupasi Bangla (1972), Comilla Batra, Bangladesh, Shiranam; Weekly: Amod (1955), Abhibhadan (1994), Laksam Batra, Nirikkhan, Natunpatra, Samayatra (1967), Sangbad, Monthly Manan, Pathakbatra, Mainamati, Barura Kantha, Crime Report; Fortnightly: Brahmanpara Burichang; Defunct: Tripura Patrika (1876), Tripura (1932), Weekly Hindu (1941), Tripura Guide (1934), Natun Alo, Pratinidhi, Tripura Hitoishi (1883), Rayatbandhu (1921), Niamat (1940), Sabuj Bangla, Tripura Gyan Prakashani (1860), Tripura Bandhav (1942), Kathak (1983), Rangdhanu, Najat, Abahaman, Daradi (1938), Yogisammalani (1912), Comilla Sahitya Parishad Patrika (1985), Mainamati (1965), Purbasha, Shikhak Sruida, Alo, Chirkut (1974), Robi (1924), Tarun (1938), Samskriti (1940), Jagriti (1951), Apan Parichaya.

Folk culture Punthi-path, Palli geeti, Bhatiyali, Bhawaya, Jarigan, Sarigan, Dak, Khanar Bachan, proverbs are notable.

Tourist spots Shalban Bihar, Mainamati Museum, Lalmai hills, bard, house of sachin dev burman, house of Shahid dhirendranath datta (Comilla Adarsha Sadar), Debidwar Paurashaba Park and Debidwar Paurashaba Shishu (childrens) Park. [Mamun Siddiqi]

See also The upazilas under this district.

References Bangladesh Population Census 2001 and 2011, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; Cultural survey report of Comilla District 2007; Cultural survey report of Upazilas of Comilla District 2007.