Jhenaigati Upazila

Jhenaigati Upazila (sherpur district) area 242.07 sq km, located in between 25°04' and 25°16' north latitudes and in between 89°58' and 90°08' east longitudes. It is bounded by Meghalaya state of India on the north, sherpur sadar and sreebardi upazilas on the south, nalitabari upazila on the east, Sreebardi upazila on the west.

Population Total 160452; male 79548, female 80904; Muslim 151539, Hindu 5537, Christian 3104 and others 272.

Water bodies Main rivers: Shomeshwari, Chilakhali, Malishi; Sonaikara Beel, Dholi Beel, Palka Beel, Bandhapole Beel, Baidadhanga Beel, Rurli Beel and Gur Canal are notable.

Administration Jhenaigati Thana was formed in 1975 and it was turned into an upazila in 1983.

Municipality Union Mouza Village Population Density (per sq km) Literacy rate (%)
Urban Rural Urban Rural
- 7 75 117 5730 154722 663 65.3 37.7
Upazila Town
Area (sq km) Mouza Population Density (per sq km) Literacy rate (%)
1.74 2 5730 3293 65.3
Name of union and GO code Area (acre) Population Literacy rate (%)
Male Female
Kangsha 43 13332 12516 12466 39.6
Gauripur 15 5596 7717 7834 34.1
Jhenaigati 25 7936 16248 16471 43.5
Dhanshail 12 7092 10756 10926 37.0
Nalkura 60 9107 13056 13508 40.0
Malijhikanda 50 4868 11324 11568 35.0
Hatibandha 17 3521 7931 8131 37.8

Source Bangladesh Population Census 2011, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.

War of Liberation Freedom fighters had encounters with the Pak army at Nakshi BOP of Jhenaigati Police Station and the area near Katakhali Bridge and some other places of the upazila. 23 freedom fighters were martyred and 35 Pakistani soldiers were killed in the encounter at Nakshi. There is a mass grave in the upazila; a freedom fighters’ plaque had been founded at Gazni at the foot of the hills of Meghalya.

For details: see ঝিনাইগাতী উপজেলা, বাংলাদেশ মুক্তিযুদ্ধ জ্ঞানকোষ (Encyclopedia of Bangladesh War of Liberation), বাংলাদেশ এশিয়াটিক সোসাইটি, ঢাকা ২০২০, খণ্ড ৪।

Religious institutions Mosque 253, temple 38, church 11, tomb 1. Noted religious institutions: Khanbari Mosque and Tamagaon Mazar.

Literacy rate and educational institutions Average literacy 38.7%; male 41.2%, female 36.3%. Noted educational institutions: Alhaz Shafiuddin Ahmed College (1986), DR. Serazul Hoque Technical and Agriculture Diploma Institute (2001), Tinani Adarsha College (1986), Jhenaigati Mahila Adarsha College (2002), Malijhikanda High School (1948), Ahmadnagar High School (1960), Jhenaigati Pilot High School (1961), Dighirpar Alim Madrasa (1962).

Cultural organisations Club 22, library 2, cinema hall 2, stadium 1, press club 1, playground 8.

Tourist spots Gazni Leisure Centre, Sandhyakura Rubber Garden, Mariam Nagar Mission, Ainapur Rubber Dam.

Main sources of income Agriculture 70.18%, non-agricultural labourer 3.57%, industry 0.69%, commerce 9.72%, transport and communication 3.09%, service 3.13%, construction 0.43%, religious service 0.17%, rent and remittance 0.18% and others 8.84%.

Ownership of agricultural land Landowner 55.43%, landless 44.57%; agricultural landowner: urban 37.71% and rural 56.02%.

Main crops Paddy, wheat, potato, vegetables.

Extinct or nearly extinct crops Jute, pulse, arahar.

Main fruits Jackfruit, banana, papaya.

Communication facilities Pucca road 80 km, mud road 299 km.

Extinct or nearly extinct traditional transport Palanquin, bullock cart.

Noted manufactories Flour mill, oil mill, welding factory, saw mill, ice factory.

Cottage industries Goldsmith, blacksmith, potteries, weaving, tailoring, wood and bamboo work.

Hats, bazars and fairs Jhenaigati, Dhanshail and Tinani hats are notable.

Main exports Paddy, banana, vegetables, stone, sand.

Access to electricity All the unions of the upazila are under rural electrification net-work. However 43.3% of the dwelling households have access to electricity.

Sources of drinking water Tube-well 87.3%, tap 0.5% and others 12.2%. The presence of intolerable level of arsenic has been detected 65% in shallow tube-well water of the upazila.

Sanitation 50.5% of dwelling households of the upazila use sanitary latrines and 39.9% of dwelling households use non-sanitary latrines; 9.6% of households do not have latrine facilities.

Health centres Upazila health complex 1, family planning centre 7, union health and family welfare centre 4, satellite clinic 1.

Natural disasters Many people of the upazila died of small pox in 1974. Besides, the flood of 1988 caused heavy damages to settlements, livestock and crops of the upazila.

NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are brac, ASA, caritas, proshika, World Vision, SDS. [Syed Marufuzzaman]

References Bangladesh Population Census 2001 and 2011, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; Cultural survey report of Jhenaigati Upazila 2007.