Kulaura Upazila

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Kulaura Upazila (maulvibazar district) area 545.73 sq km, located in between 24°19' and 24°39' north latitudes and in between 91°54' and 92°07' east longitudes. It is bounded by fenchuganj and barlekha upazilas on the north, tripura state of India on the south, juri upazila on the east, kamalganj and rajnagar upazilas on the west.

Population Total 360195; male 175832, female 184363; Muslim 283868, Hindu 70005, Christian 5988, Buddhist 73 and others 261. Indigenous communities such as manipuri and khasia belong to this upazila.

Water bodies Main river: manu.

Administration Kulaura Thana was formed in 1922 and it was turned into an upazila on 10 January 1992. Kulaura Municipality was formed in 1996.

Municipality Union Mouza Village Population Density (per sq km) Literacy rate (%)
Urban Rural Urban Rural
1 13 128 447 27491 332704 660 65.35 (2001) 50.7

Area (sq km)




(per sq km)

Literacy rate (%)

10.50 (2001) 9 26 26150 1994 (2001) 65.5
Upazila Town

Area (sq km)



(per sq km)

Literacy rate

3.82 (2001) 2 1341 268 (2001) 62.7
Name of union and GO code Area (acre) Population Literacy rate (%)
Male Female
Karmadha 59 24480 18192 19167 48.8
Kadirpur 53 6263 10702 10948 57.8
Kulaura 65 5824 8213 8826 51.8
Joychandi 41 10721 15261 15736 48.5
Tilagaon 95 10199 15661 16326 37.7
Prithim Pasha 71 6116 15322 16019 61.6
Baramchal 11 7013 9498 9693 56.3
Brahman Bazar 17 6992 14974 15428 51.3
Bhukshimail 11 12418 11851 13041 49.9
Bhatera 13 8122 7452 8139 56.9
Routhgaon 77 4822 9937 10670 46.1
Sharifpur 89 7971 11388 12346 45.7
Hajipur 35 7196 14326 14929 53.3

Source Bangladesh Population Census 2001 and 2011, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.

Archaeological heritage and relics Nawab Bari of Pritthim Pasha (early 18th century), copperplate of Bhatera, Rangirkul Vidia Ashram, Gagan Tila, Chand Gram Dighi.

Historical events During the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857, about 300 Sepoys, who looted the Chittagong Treasury, took shelter to Gowsali Khan, the Zamindar of Pritthim Pasha. During the non-cooperation movement of India in 1921, Purnendu Kishore Sengupta established the Vidyasram at Rangirkul in Kulaura. Many students of Nabin Chandra School were expelled for their involvement in the anti British movement in 1939. During this time the British allied forces established a camp at Kalapani Haor, two km northwest of Kulaura Town.

War of Liberation In 1971 the Pak army established camps at the premises of Kulaura Hospital and Nabin Chandra High School. During the war of liberation the Pak army killed more than one hundred freedom fighters and innocent people in different places of Kulaura upazila. Freedom fighters often exchanged fires from their camp at Tilabazar with Pak army stationed at Muraichhara. There were also encounters between the freedom fighters and Pakistani soldiers at Paikpara part of the Manu-Chatlapur road, Razapur camp of the Pak army and Karmadha union. There is a mass grave at Chatolgaon and a mass killing site at Chiral Muchir Bari on the bank of Padda Dighi of Ali Amjad High School.

For details: see কুলাউড়া উপজেলা, বাংলাদেশ মুক্তিযুদ্ধ জ্ঞানকোষ (Encyclopedia of Bangladesh War of Liberation), বাংলাদেশ এশিয়াটিক সোসাইটি, ঢাকা ২০২০, খণ্ড ২।

Religious institutions Tomb of Hazrat Shah Kamal (R).

Literacy rate and educational institutions Average literacy 51.9%; male 52.5%, female 51.3%. educational institutions: college 9, secondary school 39, primary school 218, community school 16, madrasa 43. Noted educational institutions: Kulaura Degree College (1969), Yakub-Tajul Women's College (1995), Langla Adhunik College (1998), Yousuf Goni Adarsha College, Nabin Chandra High School (1909), Nayabazar KC High School (1909), Routhgaon High School (1928), Kulaura Girls' High School.

Newspapers and periodicals Weekly: Manab Thikana (1997), Kulaurar Dak (1999); defunct: Sreehatta Vraman-Parivraman (1930); weekly: Nakib (1937), Fariad (1987); monthly: Al Amin.

Cultural organisations Library, playground.

Tourists spots Notable tourist spots of the upazila include 33 tea gardens, the first Eco Park (established on 1500 acres of land) at Muraichhara (Karmadha), a number of tilas and hillocks, and rubber garden.

Main sources of income Agriculture 43.83%, non-agricultural labourer 13.56%, industry 2%, commerce 9.62%, transport and communication 1.94%, service 6.41%, construction 1.07%, religious service 0.39%, rent and remittance 4.86% and others 16.32%.

Ownership of agricultural land Landowner 45.03%, landless 54.97%.

Main crops Paddy, wheat, potato, tea, rubber, betel leaf, bamboo, cane, mustard, bay leaf.

Extinct or nearly extinct crops Sugarcane, sesame, linseed, arahar.

Main fruits Jackfruit, pineapple, mango, blackberry, litchi.

Fisheries, dairies and poultries Fishery 81, poultry 79, hatchery 1.

Communication facilities Pucca road 212 km, semi-pucca road 14.44 km, mud road 768 km; waterway 20 km; railway 45 km. Railway station 7.

Extinct or nearly extinct traditional transport Palanquin, horse carriage, bullock cart.

Noted manufactories Rice mill, tea factory, ice factory, saw mill, aluminum factory, hardboard factory, cold storage, welding factory.

Cottage industries Goldsmith, blacksmith, potteries, weaving, shital pati, bamboo work, cane work.

Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 51, most noted of which are Brahman Bazar, Kaminiganj, Falutala, Robir Bazar, Ghater Bazar, Uttar Bazar, Dakshin Bazar, Chowdhury' Bazar. Besides Baruni Mela at Lalbag, Durga Puja Mela, Paush Samkranti Mela, Rangirkul Ashram Mela are also notable.

Main exports Tea, rubber, betel leaf, bamboo and cane furniture.

Access to electricity All the wards and unions of the upazila are under rural electrification net-work. However 53.9% of the dwelling households have access to electricity.

Natural resources Uranium, glass sand, oil (Baramchal) and natural gas have been traced in the upazila.

Sources of drinking water Tube-well 71.1%, tap 3.8% and others 25.1%.

Sanitation 51.3% of dwelling households of the upazila use sanitary latrines and 42.0% of dwelling households use non-sanitary latrines; 6.7% of households do not have latrine facilities.

Health centres Upazila health centre 1, hospital 6, family planning centre 16, health and family welfare centre 9, rural health centre 5, maternity and child centre 1, satellite clinic 5, charitable hospital 7, community clinic 15, diabetic centre 1, veterinary hospital 1, paralysis rehabilitation centre 1.

NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are brac, caritas, HEED Bangladesh, Missionaries of Charity. [Samir Uddin Ahmed]

References Bangladesh Population Census 2001 and 2011, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; Field report of Kulaura Upazila 2007.