Netrokona District

Netrokona District (Mymensingh Division) area 2794.28 km sq km, located in between 24°34' and 25°12' north latitudes and in between 90°00' and 91°07' east longitudes. It is bounded by the Meghalaya state of India on the north, kishoreganj district on the south, sunamganj district on the east and mymensingh district on the west.

Population Total 2229642; male 1111306, female 1118336; Muslim 2001732, Hindu 207430, Buddhist 54, Christian 18200 and others 2226. Indigenous communities such as garo, Hajong, Hodi and Banai belong to this upazila.

Water bodies Main rivers: Dhanu, Dhalai, Ghorautra, piyain, Gunai, Someshwari.

Administration Netrokona Sub-division was formed in 1882 and was turned into a district in 1984. Of the ten upazilas of the district kalmakanda is the largest (377.41 sq km, it occupies 13.43% of the total area of the district) and atpara is the smallest (195 sq km).

Area (sq km) Upazila Municipality Union Mouza Village Population Density (per sq km) Literacy rate (%)
Urban Rural
2794.28 10 5 86 1571 2282 247183 1982459 798 39.4
Others Information of District
Name of upazila Area (sq km) Municipality Union Mouza Village Population Density (per sq km) Literacy rate (%)
Atpara 192.50 - 7 142 177 144624 751 38.7
Kalmakanda 376.22 - 8 179 347 271912 723 36.6
Kendua 303.59 1 13 217 289 304729 1004 37.6
Khaliajuri 297.63 - 6 68 75 97450 327 30.4
Durgapur 279.28 1 7 129 210 224873 805 39.5
Netrokona Sadar 341.71 1 12 255 332 372785 1091 46.0
Purbadhala 308.03 - 11 226 336 310834 1009 42.8
Barhatta 220.00 - 7 147 239 180449 820 37.6
Madan 233.30 1 8 93 122 154479 662 30.4
Mohanganj 241.98 1 7 115 163 167507 591 42.1

Source Bangladesh Population Census 2011, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.

War of Liberation In the beginning of the war of liberation the freedom fighters destroyed the Thakurkona Railway Bridge located on the western extremity of the Barhatta Upazila by explosion in order to prevent the Pak army in entering the area. On 29 April 1971 the Pak army captured 4 persons of Netrokona Sadar and shot them dead at the Trimohani Bridge on the Purbadhala Road. A direct encounter was held between the freedom fighters and the Pak army at the junction of three roads in Nazirpur union of Kalmakanda upazila on 26 July in which 7 freedom fighters were killed. On 19 August 1971 the freedom fighters attacked the Atpara Police Station (Thana) and killed a number of razakars and the OC of the Thana; they also captured arms and ammunitions of the Thana. In August the people of village Gaokandhi under Durgapur upazila killed two Pak soldiers and one razakar. In retaliation, the Pak army brutally killed about one hundred innocent people of the village. On 7 October a battle was fought between the freedom fighters and the Pak army and razakars at Atpara Sadar in which three razakars were killed. In August 1971 the freedom fighters raided the Kendua Police Station and captured arms and ammunitions. On 13 November they captured 12 rifles and arrested 8 razakars from Boser Bazar area of Kendua. On 20 November the freedom fighters attacked the Pak military camp located on the Patkura Bridge and killed a number of razakars; in this incident one freedom fighter was also killed. On 8 December the freedom fighters killed 19 razakars at Patharghata of Mohanganj upazila. Three freedom fighters were killed in an encounter with the Pak army on 9 December at Netrokona Sadar. In another encounter between the freedom fighters and the Pak army at the Agricultural Farm the Pak army was defeated; in this encounter two freedom fighters were also killed.There is a mass grave and 4 mass killing sites in the district; 6 memorial monuments have been built.

Literacy rate and educational institutions Average literacy 39.4%; male 40.9%, female 38.0%. Educational institutions: college 28, secondary school 236, primary school 1083, madrasa 160. Noted educational institutions: Kendua' Joyhari Pilot Government High School (1832), Netrokona Datta High School (1889), Birisiri Pishinal High School (1892), Birisiri Mission Girls' High School (1899), Netrokona Chandranath High School (1909), Barwari High School (1911), Sandikona High School (1912), Anjuman Model Government High School (1914), Barhatta CKP Pilot High School (1914), Asujia JNC High School (1916), Purbadhala Pilot High School (1916), Naopara High School (1918), SKPS High School (1918), Ghagra Bilateral High School (1919), Bekhairm Hati NK High School (1922), 'Dharmaroy Ramdhan High School (1930), Gopalasram Vairab Chandra High School (1930), Mohanganj 'Government Pilot High School (1931), Baushi Ardhachandra High School (1939), Baniajan City High School (1940), Kalmakanda Pilot High School (1942), Gujirkona High School (1946), Jahangirpur Tahura Amin High School (1946), Saldigha GG High School (1954), Kutubpur High School (1964), Khaliajuri High School (1967), Durgapur Entrance High School (1879), Teligati BNHK Academy (1905), Upendra Biddyapit (1913-14), Mangalsidha MS Junior School (1925).

Main sources of income Agriculture 72.43%, non-agricultural labourer 3.40%, industry 0.53%, commerce 10%, transport and communication 2.11%, service 3.92%, construction 0.91%, religious service 0.26%, rent and remittance 0.23% and others 6.21%.

Newspapers and periodicals Daily: Jananetra, Banglar Darpan, Deshkanthaswar, 'Desher Dak, Netra (defunct); weekly: Muktir Pratik; monthly: Makrasha; defunct monthly: Arya Pradip, Koumadi, Mahat Uddesha, Prantabashi, Julfikr, Arya Prava; quarterly: Ekush Satoker Srot, Someshwari, Jalsiri, Matir Subas;' literary periodical: Smriti Kanan, Susong Barta, Dhanu, Uttar Akash, Nabanur; research periodical: Janira; periodical: Akshar, Chetana, Spandan, Smriti-71, Bijoy, Sreejani.

Folk culture maimansingha gitika, Baul song, Palageet, proverbs of the Garo community, rhymes and sloka of the Hajong community, riddle (thachi katha) and Gahen (song) are most notable.

Tourists spots Birisiri Tribal Cultural Academy, Durgapur Martyr Memorial Monument, garo Baptist Convention Centre (Durgapur), Rashimoni Ranikhong Catholic Church, tombs of 7 freedom fighters (Kalmakanda), tomb of Hazrat Shah Sultan Kamrudin at Madanpur (Netrokona Sadar). [Sanjay Sarkar]

See also The upazilas under this district.

References Bangladesh Population Census 2001 and 2011, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; Cultural survey report of Netrokona District 2007; Cultural survey report of upazilas of Netrokona District 2007.